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Regarding the groupset, there is no choice nowadays anyway, you buy a bike with SRAM or with Shimano depending on your personal preference (or campagnolo too if it's a road bike). If the groupset is made by anyone else you don't even touch it.
There are good parts made in Europe/US for other components though, like carbon frames and wheels, in particular there are many Western manufacturers of smaller components like handlebars, bearings, brakes, saddles etc. You just need to start spending over £1000 to get a bike with these rather than Asian parts, and I believe at this price point you hit the law of diminishing returns. Yes it would be nice to have a shiny pair of Hope disc brakes, but no one's going to notice any difference between those and a pair of Malaysian built Shimanos unless they're heading to the downhill tracks in Wales.
It's a mountain bike, not a city bike, none of what you have said is the slightest bit relevant. You may as well be complaining that a pair of pliers is no good for hammering nails.
I sort of agree with this, but I sort of don't.
The thing about modern bicycles is that they're so incredibly standardised that there is very little engineering that can be put into the design of the bike, the majority of the work in designing a new bike is in choosing the combination of off-the-shelf components. A manufacturer will design their own frame (within a large number of constraints). But while there are good frames and bad frames it will often fall down to personal preference, one guy might love a frame made by one company, another guy prefers the frame from another. A lot of it will fall down to the fact that people are different shapes, even two people exactly the same height can have different sized limbs, so a certain frame will suit each person more than others.
That said, I do prefer German brands over others as I said further up, with any European bike, especially for German brands, you get the most bang-for-your-buck.